Hugh Warden's Journal
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                       This Book Belongs to 
                                  
                            Hugh Warden
                             Bought in
                         Cork 20th Aug 1782
                                  
                                ----
This Book was given me by my father, Rev. William Jacob Warden of
Washington Rappahannock County Virginia, September, 1889 -- and is
Now the property of
                        Hubert Pascal Warden
                         Mexico, Missouri.
                               U.S.A.
                                ____
This book was given me by my father, Hubert Pascal Warden,
Dec. 23, 1946.
                         To my beloved son,
                     Dr. John Strother Clayton
                            Chapel Hill
                          North Carolina,
                    with enduring love from his
                   mother, LaReine Warden Clayton
August 22, 1962,
Knoxville, Tennessee

Cork

 The 28th day of August 1782, after having road near five miles into the country on my Scotch ponnie, who by one who met me on the way was properly enough called an elegant creature, --- well, he is the first Horse I ever had, and it is likely when I part with him I shall part with the last Horse I shall ever have, but who knows, that if I wish for another Horse or more Horses, altho Fortune has hitherto cut short my indulgence in this way, she will not find a proper time to put it in my power to gratify myself in this or other matters that may be convenient, comfortable or ellegant. I am to blame for having used the word Fortune because it is more preferable -- besides, I think it an unmeaning word which fixes no certain idea on the mind; had I said Providence I had spoke properly and used a word of fixed sense conveying a beautifull idea to the mind.

This season all over Europe has been remarkably backward and cold throughout, and a sharp cold wind blew from the North during my jaunt, which nevertheless was agreable, especially as I was much pleased at observing the country had suffered very little dammage from the late rains --- a prospect of great plenty on every hand --- blessed providence, from chilling winds and floods of rain thy North-wind, at thy bidding, in a moment delivers us, and turns the fears of thy rational creatures into songs of thankfulness and joy!

After my riding a few miles into the country and having eat a light dinner, being cheerfull and at leasure in my lodgings at Roks-grove, I resolved to make a beginning towards penning my own History, which it is my purpose faithfully to relate, with a view to the instruction of my children if such I shall ever have, and should this not be the case, it may divert, if not edify, any person into whose hands it shall fall. As there is no intention that the subject of the following pages shall ever come before the publick, under any title allyed to romance, so the Reader need not expect to meat any very wonderfull incidents, neither will he find any that are nearly so remarkable as may have happned to many individuals, my chief intention being a plain narrit- ive of what rests on my memory of the experience of near twenty years Merchantile adventure, mixed with such reflections as may be useful to myself or the Reader.

 That part of Great-Britain called Scotland is my native country; I was born on the twentieth day of November (old stile) 1745, in a Market-town called Alyth, fourteen scotish miles northeast of Perth the Shire-town. Alyth is very pleasantly situated on the foot of the Grampian mountains, within two or three miles of the place as it is thought where the famous Galgacus fought the last battle for his Country against the Roman general Agricola. This brave man fought to free his country from the invaders; for this end he quited the fastnesses of the mountains and fought the Romans in the plain -- he was an Orator as well as an Hero, his speach to his army before the battle being judged by Critics, one of the best of antiquity; he was forced from the field, but the victory was such that the Romans did not choose to follow it -- they soon retreated, quitting a large tract of fertile country and scarcely thought themselves safe behind their extended walls. 

Alyth has the Grampian mountains to the North, with an extended view of strath-more to the south bounded by the Aichil-hills -- those hills and mountains run parallel from east to west, from the German Ocean nearly across the Island to the Atlantick; the interval betwixt them being generaly five computed or seven measured miles across, called Strathmore, a fine fertile country; from the site of the Church in the center of the town, and from my Fathers house a great extent of this fine country lys levell in view; the prospect from the southern side of the Grampian's is truly magnificent, and full as much so from the Northern side of the Aichils or Ochils -- few countries display grander scenes of rural nature than are to be seen here= albeit where those hills & Mountains form into summits somewhat devided from the range, on these summets are to be found the foundation of aintiest Castles; Among many others whos' historys are not known is Dunsinan-hill the cheof strength of the Usurper, Macbeth, the summet of which is surrounded by three walls inclosing the ruins of an extensive work on the top -- this hill commands a view of the greatest part of Strathmore, and to the Northwest of it, fair in vew among the Grampian's lys Birnam-hill, from whos' swelling sides covered them with wood, the Army marching against Macbeth carried each man a bough, to conceal their numbers -- so Birnam wood did march to Dunsinan. 

Within two miles of Perth to the south lys Moncreos (aintiently, Meoreoun) hill, on the summet of which are extensive ruins, said to have been a seat of the Pictish Kings -- from this hill is one of the finest vews in Scotland, I nead not hesitate to say in Britain -- to the North lys the Town of Perth beautifully situated on the banks of the Tay having a Noble stone-bridge over that River; the vew this way is bounded by the Grampian-mountains; to the South lys Strathearn, with the river Earn running beautifully through it; this Strath is in length 15 measured miles, in breadth about 4, and elligantly spotted with planting and many good houses, amongst which are several Noble seats -- and Invermay with its woods celebrated in song -- the view this way is bounded by the Aichel or Ochil hills, and far to the west are seen the summets of distant mountains; due east lys the firth of Tay and Carse of Gowrie studed with Noble seats and vilages -- and at the distance of 25 measured miles the vew this way is bounded by the influx of the German Ocean; the River Tay sweeps the Hill on the north-east side, in which direction stands Kinnoul-hill, twixt which & Morebun there is only the river and a small fertile flat -- from Kinnoul-hill there is also a fine prospect, and the side of it next the River is a tremendious precipice, affording a lively immage of Shakespears discription in King Lear -- the Crows and Choughs that wing the midway air seem scare so gross as beetles, etc. --- 

On the verge of the famous Grampian mountains, which, being guarded by their sons the Romans attempted in vain, lay the seat of my youthfull studies, my father being my schoolmaster -- he yet lives and conducts that seminary, his education was regularly classical, and being intended for the Church he also went through his years of study in Divinity -- he is an acknowlidged man of genious, but the warmth of his constitution led him to deeds disalowed by the Clergy in that country -- in short, a young one discovered that he had given a natural apitite its indulgence, which by the rules of the Church in that country disqualified him for the pulpit -- he then became Rector of the school of Alyth, the post his Father had occupied. 

My Mother is yet alive, my fathers only wife, she is of the Stewart family, and a lineal decendant from the Royal-blood by an illegitimate youthfull exertion -- her father was Laird of Arnygag, a spot of ground closs-by Dunkeld . and was Factor to the Duke of Athol at the time of his death. My Mother is a Woman of a genrous brave mind, and has been a carefull manager of her household concerns. 

My Father draws his descent from Sir William Wallace, and says that Sir Williams Heir, on the captivity of that Hero, fearing the persecution of his enemies, shifted his place of aboad and took the name of Warden from Sir Wm's having been Warden of the Scotch marches -- so that, to this account my father used always to add, His children should be brave blood. 

There were eight of us -- four only arrived at the years of maturity, and there are but three now alive, viz John who was bred for the Church, but is now an attor'y at Law in Virginia; Grame who is married to W m: Panton, Nottary Publick and Land surveyor now living in Alyth having issue; and Hugh the Author of these memoirs. 

My father intending me for a Merchantile life took me early from the study of the Classicks that I might more closely attend to Arithmetic, Book-keeping Etc; I had read good part of Virgil, but am now nearly as ignorant of the Latin as if I had never learned any of it. I think my father acted properly in taking me from the study of Latin, for unless a Man's fortune is made to his hand, or that he be intended for some of the learned professions -- viz Law, Physic, or Divinity -- it is one of a hundred to whom the Languages prove usefull; and to spend any of their time in the study thereof, without becoming perfect, is altogether fruitless; by the word usefull, I mean, benefit to their fortune; it is no doubt a pleasure to know the Languages and to converse with men that understand them, from which indeed their is also this evident advantage, that when you are amongest strangers it is sufficient notice that your education has been liberal and your Parentage genteel -- there is no question but, that when the money is easily spared, and the time not required for more necessary studies, the languages are a desirable attainment: a knowlidge of the French language I should think very proper for any youth hoping to reach any eminence in the Merchantile line. 

At about the age of sixteen it was judged proper I should begin my apprenticeship -- but before I set out upon business let me call to remembrance some of the passages and sports of my youth; I very well remember Palal, Capehol & the wheep which spun the top, pear, or shinnie; these were sports of little exercise compared with Hindmusthol, Birlebracks about the Stacks, or slinding -- the two latter of these devertions afforded many a chace wherein the parties could not more exert themselves, or use more stratagem if fortune, life, or glory depended on the event; a King was chosen who's business it was to catch the others, the dementions for a place of refuge were marked out, a certain distance of start allowed, and certain rules for parley established; the King was chosen by a kind of lot, and whoever he caught assisted him in catching the rest, which when compleated the game ended. We did not understand skeating, but we had shoes the soles and heels of which were circuted with tacks, on which, with the assistance of a small run, we would slide the distance of a 100 yards; often we would go in strings from 15 to 20 in number, each holding his fromost neighbour by the skirt, and sometimes girls would be in the play; in which case, some one or other would fall near the end of the slide, which occasioned the certain tumbling of those that followed, and generaly affoarded a hearty laugh to all concerned. -- often the girls did not escape without being kissed during this squiking tumbling laughing disaster; -- on the brow too of the Grampian mountains we had a curious manner of sliding; in many places where the ascent was less steep, sprang fountains of water, these, formed by many a yard on the declivity, what we call Rons of ice -- a large smooth stone was got to the top of the Ron on which the youth sitting and giving himself a little way or shove, with the rapidity of an eagle from the cliff, would, hurling reach the plain -- few had courage or dexterity for this devertion.--- 

There was no part of my grammar would rest on my memory so as to bring it to any use, without I had been particularly instructed why it should be used; I must be told why such a word governed such a case, and why some words were nouns, pronouns, Etc. -- it was the same in my arithmetic; I must have the reason why such a disposition of figures answred such a question; I think this was a happy presage that, as reason only could be my instructor, so it would be my guide. 

I rec'd a present from a Gent n: with an injunction not to tell from whom I got it, no one could ever learn this of me, and I remember to have heard my father praise my fidelity in keeping the secret. 

I do not remember the particular circumstances of any guaril ever I had, but, on a faling out with my elder brother I reccolect the boys wanted to bring it to a fight, and bid me call him a son-of-a-gun -- this I did, but soon after was so sorry as to cry on account of it, which fixed the matter on my memory to this day. 

Having heard at times of men taking their oath, or swearing to the truth, with animadvertions on the terrible nature of rash or false swearing, I asked my father what was meant by men taking an oath & how they did it; I was answered (in short) that they swore As they should answer to God at the great day, such a thing was true or that they would do such a thing -- this matter took hold of my mind, so that when I was intending any matter, the words, As I shall answer Etc, were ever ready in it; I remember to have been exceedingly alarmed at these words haunting my mind, and to have believed it a snare the Divel laid for me; for which reasons (as I had been taught to say my prayers every morning and evining) I prayed I might be saved from the bad use of these words and that the remembrance of them might be taken away -- the reflection I make upon this is that, childern ought never to be taught a matter which cannot benefit them, and of which a bad use may be made: this very matter (triffling as it may appear) I believe had a great influence in giving my mind that serious thoughtfull cast which it has ever retained; its use this way I hope has been of service to my morals, whither it has been of advntage or disadvantage to my wordly concerns I cannot assertain. 

I was carefully instructed in my moral and religious duties by a learned parent -- indeed the common practise in the scotish skooles are well adapted to this, the only books we read being the shorter catechism (an excellent compendium of religion and morality) which we got by heart; the proof catechism (which is scripture proofs of Doctrines in the shorter catechism) which some also get by heart; the Proverbs of Solomon, & the Scriptures at large. 

The manner of teaching the Scotish youth their social conduct I do not so much approve of, they are kep much by themselves and not allowed to sit at table even with their parents, much less when there is any company; and when they arrive to be admited to this previlidge, they are enjoined silence, and taught in general to listen to their elders; -- this to be sure teaches them diffidence, and how to keep a distance; but the manner being merely Authoritative, this diffidence and distance proceeds much more from a Slavish than a Rational principle, so that the youths are nearly unable to behave or express themselves with any propriety before a superior; it is certainly better at time to admit children into company, and to listen to and encourage their little observations, which will open and strengthen their reasoning powers more quickly, and give them confidence of expression, which may often prove necessary to them in the world; and as a judicious person will easily see when they deserve a check, this treatment will not destroy a becoming modisty, or prevent that respect which is proper to their superiors. 

Endowed with those natural dispositions which the few anec- dots recorded of my youth discovered, and educated in the manner above related -- furnished also with a good constitution strengthned by the youthfull exercises I have named, in the puer air which the boreal-morn blows clear and keen on the swelling bosom of the Grampian mountains; Brother John set out with me on my way to commence my Aprintieship at Perth. 

On foot we set out. I remember I had a handsom pocket Bible bound in halfs in my pockets, when we were half on our way we sat down by the side of a wood to rest, and in the meantime I read a chapter in John's gospel, which ended with the words -- arise let us go hence; B r: John took notice it was apropo, and we pursued our journey. I was to serve an Apprinticeship to a Merchant in Perth for four years, and my father was to have given about 25£St. 

An apprinticeship to a Merch. t:! 

Let me now call it a slavery to a shopkeeper; for in that country they make it a point to cause you do all the slavery about the shop that you may be learned not to be above your business and as to your learning what belongs to Merchandizing, you will remain as ignorant of that as you was at the commencement of your time, excepting you may understand something more of Invoices & the nature of Accounts. To be able to furnish a shop with Groceries or with Dry goods constitutes a Merch. t: in that country, and the people at Large have little other conception of Merchandizing --- there are some (I speak of Perth & Dundee, the two ports on the Tay) who trade to the Baltick for Hemp Flax Iron & Wood; some others import Wines from Portugall which last business I believe succeeds principaly by savings made from the Customs -- and there is a considerable business in the Linen branch to London, fine Linens from Perth, and principly Ogn. ed: from Dundee; all these however are but few comparatively to the shopkeepers, and are not in use of taking Apprentices, indeed if they were, little more would be learned of them than the others. Each of these might teach a boy how to carry on the same business in the same place, but he will know little or nothing of Custom house business, of Insurance, of Exchanges, or of any matter belonging to shipping and foreign commerce -- so that should he venture out of the very sphere in which he served his apprenticeship he will find himself nearly as much to learn as ever. 

The last studies of a young man designed for a Merchant should be Arithmetic and Book-keeping; while he is compleating in these, let him read the Lex Mercatoriou, the Geographical grammar and the Gazateer -- and the Book of Rates, the latest additions of all which books ought to be bought for him; and also the latest and best Out of Great Britain its Manufactories Etc. After being conversant in these, let him be placed for one or two years in a Counting house where he will have an opp y: of seeing an extensive correspondence, learning the forms of entry and the elemance and other parts of practice, which in my oppinion will compleat him for whatever Branch of commerce he thinks fit to engage in. 

The agreement my Father had made with the Shopkeeper & Merch t: to whom I was to ben an apprintice for four years had been but a verbal one, and when I had been some months in Perth, my Father came to town to close the indentures; but mistake, forgitfulness or something else, caused a difference of 5£ in the sum that was to be given w t: me, and it was resolved that I should return home. 

I did not return with my father, but a few weeks thereafter I was mounted on a Horse belonging to my Master, to proceed home --- there was a ferry in my way, within 3 Miles of home, over the river Isla, and the ferry-house being at some distance on the opposite side of the river, there was a horn chained to a post for the purpose of more easily calling the boat-man; the horse I rod was spirited, and no sooner did the horn sound than, desingaging himself from the slight hold I had of him, off he sat at speed through the plain, keeping the road on which he came: I had not recovered from a scald I had received on the anckle from a boiling tea kettle, notwithstanding which I resolutly pursued my horse; at about a mile distance from the river, a cornyard not very well defended attracted his notice, and leaping the inclosure he began to serve himself. The farmer seeing how the case stood, took the proper measures and secured the horse; I mounted and speedily reached the river, and the boat-man being in waiting, passed over, and soon reached home; next day the horse being sent back by a servant, we understood that M r:Bisset the owner of the Horse, was much dissapointed at my not returning, for it seems he had expected my father would comply: this however ended my first lesson from home ----- it was not without its use. 

I learned that staying 5, 4 or 3 years with these shopkeeping Merchants, which last time is the least period for which they take apprentices, was only waste of time, and little better than slavery for youth -- in 2 years a Boy may learn all that is to be learned with a shopkeeper, but your service is the point with them and not your education. I was also, in some degree, taught what ought to be a Maxim in business, the propriety of which daily experience will enforce upon the mind --- it is, that every agreement of any consequence or duration should be committed to paper, and every thing borrowed or lent and all transfer of property; for should we ever allow that all men were men of integrity, misunderstanding or forgetfulness will often cause differences twixt men of the best intention ---- but experience will teach us that there are men who will take all advantages that may fall in their way, and some who will contrive means of circumvention to the distress if not ruin of their unsuspecting neighbour: It is therefore not a bad rule in business to deal with all men as rogues untill you find none, but I would alter the phrase and say --- you should deal with all men as fallable, and take care you have the proper evidence for any charge you have to bring against them. 

The running of my horse taught me a lesson of caution in that regard --- but although he left me rather in an infirm state for following him, I do not remember the nature of the exclamation I made, or if I made any --- you must know good reader that the telling of the story of my horse put me in mind of La Fleur's Bidet in Stern's sentimental Journey; where, under the chapter Bidet I remembered to have read a passage I could not understand --- it was the following apostrophie, "Grant me, O ye powers which touch the tongue with eloquence in distress! --- whatever is my cast grant me but decent words to exclaim in, and I will give my nature way." I had read the passage a dozen times, and still I read the last word away; I thought the address much to fervent for the occasion, but reading it in this manner made it unintelliggable to me; having wrote the first line at top of this page I turned to the passage, read it right, the sence was perfectly clear, and a stop was put to the observation I intended to make. There are people who will read without understanding, as I have often known to be the case of their misreading words which distroy the sence without com- ming back on them, while a sensible hearer has corrected them in this --- the reader ought to be ashamed of this, not so much for reading wrong, as the passing over a sentence which he cannot understand; this brings to my mind a passage of my Youth --- I was reading the Gentle Shephard where Simon says --- "seeing is beleving Glaud & I have seen, Habge"; I found fault with the expression -- seeing is believing; what! To see is one thing and to believe another, how then can seeing be believing. I do not know what arguments were made use of to open this matter to me, but I remember I continued displeased and threw away the book. "-----

If I know decent words to exclaim in, says Sterne, I would give my nature way; but as these are not to be had in France, I resolve to take every evil just as it befalls me without any exclamation at all" --- those who read his journey will find that in the course of it his nature was often stronger than his resolvve. Without any exclamation I belive, I resolutely followed my Horse, got him, and arrived at Home. 

It was some little time ere it was resolved what course I should next pursue --- so soon as it was known that M r: Geo: Wright, Merch tGrocer in Dundee, wanted an apprentice, and that he would be glad of a Youth of my discription, my Father road thither with me, and had me bound for two years; I was to be at my Fathers expence in all things and pay 5£ to M r: Wright. 

On the night before the indenture was fully agreed upon, my Father being in doubt whither he should bind me for three years without any fee, or for two years and give the 5£, asked my oppinion of the matter --- I answ d: that giving the 5£ would be less expense, and that I thought two years time sufficient, for if I knew how (or where) to buy, I would know how to sell; my Father determined according to my liking, and made use of my agreement in favour of two years the next day when the bargan was closed. 

The Merch t: in Perth (James Bisset) with whom I first was, was a dealer in Dry-goods, and was married --- M r:Wright dealt only in Grocery goods and was a Batchelor. I lived in Bissets house, but Wright being a Batchelor I was boarded at the house of a M r: West Shoemaker. Bissets business was mostly retail, Wrights was chiefly serving the country shopkeepers, which is called whole-sale in that Country. 

It was not particular to Bisset that he had been a Pakman or Chapman [Peddler] for there are severals of that fraternity who come to figure as shopkeepers & Mercht s:, and Bisset would ask me, how come my Father to give so much money with me as apprentice, when I might learn at the goodwifs hands -- he was a Seceder by Religious profession, and said long prayers; I remember we had always three on Sabbath; he is not the only one since the days of the Pharasees who have been accused of acting contrary to their outward profession: Besides the Hypocrites that are in the World, who put on a Religious appearence merely for the Worldly advantage it may be to them, I verily believe there are many who are in constant practice of the outward dutys of religion who have little of it in their hearts, and at the same time do not perform them with the Hypocritical view; it is a mechanical matter with them -- they seldom reflect on the nature of that God whom they address, or on their own relations to him, therefore their hearts are not touched with a proper sense of those dutys that are more acceptable to him, on w c: account the tenor of their lives are often falty. An impious man may pray and utter words in aboundance, but it is as far from proper prayer as sounding brass. Because men of blamable lives have been known to pray there are some who make this an excuse for not praying at all; that a man should abstain from what is good because others make a bad use of it is certainly very irrational, and those who make use of the argument, give us to know that they are neither Hypocrites nor mechanicaly religious, but professedly impious. 

Though a Bad man may pray (or say words belonging to prayer) yet it is certain that a good man will take delight in prayer. We are taught in a very lively manner by Shakespear in his Macbeth that prayer, in which the soul is any way concerned, is very opposite to bad actions; and that a man having loved and obeyed God, when guilty of any bad action, puts a stop at once to the delightful intercourse of prayer --- Macbeth after killing Duncan, meeting his lady says " One cried, God help us, and Amen the other; Listning their fear I could not say, Amen, When they did say, God bless us. Lady-- Consider it not so deeply. Macb,-- But whrefore could not I pronounce Amen? I had most need of blessing, and Amen Stuck in my throat.

 Bisset's way of live led me to the above reflections; I said he was of the fraternity of Chapmen; in Scotland they are a fraternity after the manner of masonry, having as they say secret words and signs and soforth. Bisset is now out of business, and is living in Perth in some way not very reputable. M r: Wright was of the Established Church, and was I believe a very honest humane man. 

At the time of my comencing my apprenticeship, John Crammond my predecessor had a short time of his to run; he was the son of a Miller & farmer near to Dundee, and his father was able to give him some hundred pounds; on the expiration of his apprenticeship he set out for Virginia an Adventurer, from Glasgow, with some considerable value in goods---- I shall have occasion to talk largely of him hereafter. 

John West in who's house I boarded & lodged, was not a religious man, but rather reckoned irregular in his way of life, in particular he liked the company of the Mug and the glass; he had a young family but I do not remember of his ever calling them together to prayers, and I believe he took not much notice of their instruction. He had what was reckoned a good house, in the best street in town, and keep his table well provided__ I think I must have eat more than the value of eight pounds St g: a year alth'o that was my board wages given. In Dundee I improved my writing & Book-keeping for which I had hours appointed to attend the schools; I also had a time alloted for attending the dancing school of which M r:Jenkins was then Master, a man who understood polite manners as well as dancing. 

It was at this dancing school I was first sensible of the fair sex above which was merely boyish; their were two sisters from Montrose (Miss Payats) the eldest of whom, when she appeared, set my young heart beating; I never reflected on the cause of this, I only knew that I liked to think of her and to be in her Company --- 

In school the sexes were keep carefuly at distance, being appointed different seats and never allowed to converse further than common salutation; and on the practixing nights, when we learned country dances, our partners were chosen by way of lot -- then also it was customery for Mothers and other Relations to be present. These rules I now consider as very proper; they prevented me from having a conversation with the disturber of my heart, and as I was too young to have any particular matter in view I thought of no scheme to obtain it; we were therefor unacquainted further than by name & sight when the time of the school Ball arrived. 

On this occasion we paid a shilling for each ticket, and it was the practise for the boys to chuse their partners and compliment her with a ticket; I resolved to ask miss payat for my partner, and some days before the Ball, having bought my tickets, I intended to offer it to her in school; I was there before her and M r:Jenkins was leading me through some part of my minuet when she came in ---- the two sences of sight and touch gave him immediate information of my discomposure, and looking round he saw the cause of the sudden change within me; he soon turned his eyes on me with a mixture of sensibility and authority and bade me --- take care Sir. 

I attended to the remainder of my lesson as well as I could, which being ended I was sat down. My mind and whole frame were considerably agitated, the cause of which I did not think of enquiring into at the time, and I believe it may be difficult even now to account for it. It arose primarily from that influenc which the sexes in the days of their youthfull inexperience have on eachother, and which flows spontanious without restraint and without designe --- at this time it was mixed and hightned by the hope of having her for my partner and the fear that she might already be engaged, which now, I was to put to the tryle by offering my ticket. This however I could not soon set about; the mind on any interesting occasion (and I was much concerned on this) where there is a chance of dissapointment, hesitates putting it to the tryle, as if it were affraid of losing that hope which is a sourse of pleasure, notwithstanding which a state of suspence will soon become a painfull situation; and in all such cases, Resolution should be called to his post, and the matter attempted in the manner most likely for success, that the mind may know the outmost of its hopes and fears. 

Being more composed, and having thought of the most favorable way of address, I approached her, and having inquired of her welfare, in a faultering voice I hoped to have the pleasure of being her partner at the ball, and that she would do me the favour to accept of this (presenting it) ticket --- she thanked me --- she was already engaged. 

The mighty matter was over at once; my heart was somewhat damped by the dissapointment, I felt myself in a manner alone to what I was; but the female world lay before me --- I told my case to a senior acquaintance, who advised me to send my ticket to Miss the daughter of my Writting M r: (a man of Classical Education) --- I inclosed it in a billet, it was accepted and a written invitation to tea on the ball evening returned by a servent --- This young Lady had sometime finished her dancing education, and I found her an agreeable partner. 

Soon after this I left the dancing school and never afterwards had an opp'y: of speaking to miss Payat, but I think it very probable that if our ripped years had been spent near each other I should have risqued a denial from her in a matter of more consequence than that now recorded. She was a very pretty blooming Girl & had (as I had oppy:once of observing) a train of admirers --- beauty has its full force upon the Youthfull mind, and in those thoughtless disinterested days is the only cause of attachment; in our state of civilization it is therefor proper to guard against its influences till the judgement be mattured and enabled to think of other matters necessary to any continuation of fellowship. 

I was a very well look'd youth, and in every house where I was acquainted, some girle or other obtained a share of my affections --- I must mention a circumstance which happened in Fn o: West's --- a relation of M rs: West's from S t:Andrews came to visit and stay with her for some weeks; she was a well looked Girl blooming in the opening ripeness of her fifteenth year; I was very well pleased in her company, and my young heart was somewhat smitten --- I remember I presented her with an apple stuck with several pieces of white candied sugar, which I intended to represent my own heart wounded with the arrows of love --- some company coming to the house it was necessary for me to quit my chamber and sleep in the kitchen with West's eldest son; the bedstead was a fixed one, inclosed with wood, having shutters in front and a shelf at the foot within, whereon I laid my briches. 

I do not remember what had become of the servent maid --- but after ten at night, young West and I being in bed and the Comp y: in the parlor, Miss thought fit to seat herself in the Kitchen --- she had sat some time, my heart took the Alarm and throbed exceedingly as I revolved in my mind what might be her intention; the shutters of the bed were nearly close which prevented me from seeing of her, but I heard her employed as I thought undressing herself --- the feat of awakening young West kept me from speaking to her, and I believe had he not been there some other fear would have prevented me; my young mind was agitated with the thought of her comming to bed --- she can't think of coming to bed, young West being here? In the midst of these thoughts, behold! The bed shutter gently opens and forward reaches her arm! --- Powers of Nature, what is to be done! --- another streach and her body comes sideways in --- rests a moment; I heard her hand employed at foot of the bed, and presently she began to retreat carrieng my briches; astonishing, what can she mean! Shall I take hold? Something said No --- I heard her handle my money; is it curiosity to see how I am supplyed, or what in the name of wonder can she intend by this --- the arm returns bearing my briches --- shall I take hold? No, I cannot; my briches are deposited and she cautiously retreats --- I cannot interup her --- the shutter closes gently and she departs. She is gone. 

The powers of fancey are disturbed forming conjectures of the motives to such strange behavior. I raised myself in bed, caught my briches, and on searching, found my pocket-piece (a Crown given me by my Grandmother-Stewart) missing; I could not well say whither any of the smaller money was gone, but I thought it was less. 

Does she mean to make sport of this, or is it want of pocket money or the spirit of pilfering which has caused her to steal from me. I waited two or three days to observe her conduct, but finding that there was not any mention made of the matter; in her presence I told that I had lost such money, and that I thought it might be in the Kitchen bed --- the bed was ordered to be searched but no money was found; she discovered no knowlidge of it --- my regard for her was much abated as I now believed she had taken my money out of no justifyable designe. 

There was one M r: Robinson, a dealer in Timber, who had a room in West's house; Miss was a very pleasing girle, and she touched him with the tender passion --- her fortune it seems was such as to be no exception; matters were accomodated and they were married; this took place during her stay at M r: West's. I was in Comp y: with her several times after marriage, and she came to buy something once or twice at M r: Wright's shop, but I never thought proper to mention the money to her. 

These beginnings of my attachments to the fair=sex were the most remarkable occurences during my apprinticeship; if I had any merchantile instruction it consisted wholly in copying the correspondence ‘twixt M r: Wright and his London friend; in learning what profits were to be had, and how to chaffe with the country people --- I had aboundance of smart work in weighting Suffolk chese, Molasses, and Muscovado Sugars Etc. 

M r: Wright being naturaly of a mild disposition never gave me a harsh word, and indeed I seldom deserved it; on the contrary I gained his good-will by my diligence and fidelity to which he was daily witness, and which, at the close of the year, he had a pleasing confirmation of by his profits being very considerably greater than they formerly had been. 

Since the time of my predessors arrival in Virginia a correspondence had subsisted twixt him and M r: Wright, and he had represented the markets there to be so favorable for several of the manufacturers about Dundee, that M r: Wright had formed a Comp y: who shipped goods to him of a considerable am t:. When I had passed about 15 Months of my apprenticeship a letter arrived from my predecessor (whos name let it be remembered was John Crammond) in the which he desired an assistant might be sent out to him. It was determined that if my friends and I were willing that I should be the person, and M r: Wright having opened the matter to me, I gladly embraced the proposal, and we both wrote letters to my Father concerning it. 

I do not remember that my mind exercised itself much considering the propriety or impropriety of this step, experience had not furnished me with any principles of analogy, and my judgement was no further informed than by what M r: Wright told me, and the general information I had heard from Travelers; these were all agreeable --- the bright side of things generaly put on their best colours in their narations, while the unfavourable parts are never so much as brought into vew. I saw, that by keeping shop in Dundee & selling groceries there was neither much profit or pleasure, and the accounts I had reicivd of Virginia filled my imagination with aboundance of these attainments. The advantages that immediately lay before me were --- that I should avoid the expence and servitude of six months of my apprintice- ship, and enter without loss of time upon an establishment of some certain profit: I was to be engaged for three years, to have the expences of my passage paid from Glasgow, to be found in bed and board & Washing, and to have fifteen po ds: the first year, twenty the second, and twenty-five the third --- likewise liberty to import and sell some goods on my own account --- it was also stipulated that my treatment should be according to my rank & station; --- terms too general to assure me any certain treatment. The vew of these immediate advantages, and the lively hopes of success which Youth generally entertains, together with the desire of seeing something of the World made me glad of the proposal of quitting my Native Country and visiting Virginia. My Father having received our letters came to town, and the indentures were wrote out agreeable to the terms above mentioned; M r: Simon Brown Merch t: in Glasgow was to give the proper notice when the ship in which I was to have my passage was nearly ready for sailing; meantime I remained in Dundee, and M r: Wright took frequent opportunities of conversing with me concerning the situation of the Companys affairs in Crammond's hands --- it was hoped that my care would go a great way in rendering them prosperous, and He depended upon it that I would write by every opportunity to let them know the situation of affairs; that I would write at large and not spare paper; for whatever I thought worth the writing he would read with attention, concerning the Country, the manners of its inhabitants, the nature of the Trade, and the particular situation of their concerns or whatever concerned myself, and that I might depend upon his friendship and assistance as far as lay in his power. I promised a fulfillment of these expectations, looking upon it as much my duty as it was my inclination so to do --- my indentures were (if I rightly remembered) to serve M r: Wright or his assignies in Virginia; whither it arose from this circumstance or not I cannot now say, but my mind was impressed with the belief of his being my principle employer and that to him I chiefly owed fidelity. Riper years have taught me that I was more swayed by affection than by justice in this matter, and that I ought not to have taken in hand the overseeing of a man at whose ex- pence I lived, and whose secrets I was bound to keep --- a true service must have a singleness of heart, and as much in such a circumstance as the present, as in any other perhaps in life --- not that I have myself to accuse with discovering any thing which should have been hid, but that I took upon me to write of things which it was not my business to have touched upon. It is also very improper for Mercht s: to clog their correspondence with a medium of this nature, which, as it speaks that there is already a distrust or misunderstanding, has an immediate tendency to spread if not to sow the seeds of dissatisfaction. A letter was received from M r: Brown acqt g: us that the Ship in which I was to have my passage would sail in a short time, and that I should hold myself in readiness to come to Glasgow when he sent further notice; in order to this I went out to Alyth, and remained there some weeks visiting my Relations and the scenes of my youthfull amusement before any further orders were received. On the 30th of Dec r: 1762 twixt nine and ten OClock at night a messenger arrived from Dundee with notice from M r: Brown of Glasgow that if I was not at Glasgow by the 2 d: of Jan y: I would lose my passage; this notice had been delayed sometime longer than was expected, but at last it come with too hasty a command; with exertion I might reach Glasgow in the time, but it could not be expected my baggage-Chest should be there in less than a week. Brother John was at S t: Andrewes Collige, my Sisters, Father, Mother and I were in one appartment; and as my Father read the order for seperating, we were struck with a serious melancholy, and the tears of sensibility bedwed all our cheeks, excepting my Fathers, whos nature it was not to shed tears on occasions either of greif or Joy, altho very sensible to both. The immediate vew of seperation principly effected our minds, and the manner of it added a degree of sorrow --- that I should be under the necessity of travelling so speedily, and that it was likely I should be obliged to leave my baggage behind. My Mother and Sisters immediately set about the collecting and packing the affairs prepared for me, and still as they folded and packed the tears stole from the eye. A Horse & cart were engaged to go off with my Chist airly in the morning, and Horses were engaged for my Father and I so far as Perth; these things being settled we retired to rest. On the morning, after the family had addressed themselves to God, the business of my dispatch was set about; the cart with my chist being gone, and Brakefast being over, notice was given that the Horses were in waiting. --- I need not attempt to describe the parting of a beloved son from his Mother, Sisters and other Relatives; few pens can touch the complicated feelings of the mind on such an occasion --- the tender heart will figure to itself the scene. Interest, Knowlidge, Fame --- these have principly caused the seperation of friends, but nature seems to pronounce them all Tyrants; the soul is grieved and declares her suffering by tears and lamentation --- she seems to speak her loss irreparable, and the matter in pursuit not worth the gaining. It was a blowing Winter day, the roads were deep occasioned by the late soft & wet weather, and the sun at that season being less than seven hours above our horison, it was necessary to think of no further progress than Perth that day. Three miles from my Fathers house in the level of Strathmore lay the river Isla, it was swelled equal to its banks, and the wind dashed it in waves with violence against the shoares --- the meathod of passing these currents is generally by having a fixed post on each side of the river, which are joined by a chain or strong rope; there is also fixed in the head of the boat a strong pole, while the boatman pulling the chain pusheth the boat over. --- It was thought dangerous to pass, and I remember I did not like the appearence of it at all, but left its practability to my Father & the boatman to settle; the matter was talked over, some whiskie & honey called for (a dram very common in Scotland, and a very good one) which being mixed and drank, it was thought we might pass the Fery --- we attempted and succeeded. No other difficulty occuring, we reached Perth in good time. James Warden, the same person as it has been related, whose appearence into the World rendered my Father unfit for the pulpit, lived now in Perth and carried on a considerable Linen manufactory; we made his house our lodging. It was judged proper to buy some Articles of merchandize for me, and I remember particularly one and half dozen of shoes --- our minds were set somewhat at rest concerning my passage, our friends in Perth telling us that it was customery to speak of Ships sailing in a hury, when truly she might not go for some weeks; nevertheless it was resolved that I should proceed with all dispatch, and a Horse and footman were provided for me against morning. During the night the weather had changed to frost, and there had fell near a foot deep of snow, so that the morning appeared to offer uncomfortable traveling --- the footman however thought but little of it, and after prayers, my Father having particularly supplicated for me the favourable protection of Devine providence, we eat an airly Brakefast, I took an affectionate farewell and proceeded. My way lay by Stirling, which town was proposed as the close of my journey for that day; it is distant thirty miles from Perth, and there was some fear, circumstances considered, that I might not reach it. I was guided by my footman as to the road and the proper stages, so we passed through Aughteraisdour and halted at Blackfoard about half our way; a little beyond blackfoard lys Sherrifmoor, which is a sloping decent from the Northern side of the Ochil hills; it is a barren track, where, for then miles there is not any house for shelter; our nearest road (if it can be called a road) lay over this moor, and this was the way chosen by my guide. It was dreary traveling, and before we got clear of the moor, while we were on the side decending towards Stirling, (a very different part of the road) night overtook us; I was obliged to alight in some places, but I lookt on this as no great hardship, being wearied of the saddle; my guide at last was not sure of his direction, for it had been more by landmarks (in manner of a Pilot) than otherways, that he had hitherto found the road --- in this uncertainty we waded through the snow for some little time, till perceiving a light from a cottage, my guide run there; the cottager came with him, and by some treas & inclosures on this side of the hill, pointed out to him the way to decend --- we reached the plain in safety, where, meeting the made road, it being a fine starry night, we continued our way to Stirling. I had an Aunt in Stirling, my Fathers sister, Jannet; she was now married to M r: Graham the cheef Gunner of Stirling Castle, and I wanted to alight at her house, for which we had occasion several times to enquire, and were once answered by a Woman, that it was little matter should we not find it because of our ridding on Sabbath --- it was Sabbath and Newyear-day, but was within the allowance of the command, mine being a work of necessity. My Aunt is a very affectionate Woman, and very sensible; she received me kindly, and gave me, along with her advice, some money from her private purse. Here I got acquainted with Leutenant W m: Graham, the only child of M r: Graham by a former wife. In the morning the boy attended with my horse, and having taken farewell of the only relation in my way, I set out for Glasgow. Glasgow is 26 miles from Stirling if you go over a large hill or mountain in your way, called take-me-up & take-me-down Hill, and it is near 32 miles if you keep the turnpike road --- My guide lead me the hill road, which we ascended and decended safely, and having passed through Kilseyth which is halfway, we lighted at Kirkintulloch 9 miles from Glasgow; after having eat a hearty comfortable dinner, my attendant and I set out on our last stage for Glasgow, which city we reached safely and in good time. We put up at Caton's sign of the Crown in the gallow- gate --- having rested and refreshed, I waited on M r: Brown to let him know of my arrival and receive his further instructions; he was glad to see me, told me the Ship would not sail for some days yet, desired me to see him every day, asked where I had put up etc --- and I retired for the night. Next day I visited M r: Thomas Maclelan whoes sister was married to one of my Cousins, and the common conversation of a first meeting being over, as it was thought likely I might not sail for some time, he proffered me, in order to save expenses, a share of his bed and Room which I might brakefast and soop with him, and dine with the people from whom he had the room, he himself dining with the Merchat s: whose books he kept --- this offere I accepted gladly, as by it I had the company of a friendly person who was acquainted with the Town and lived on the easiest footing. We bought our brakefast and supper materials in common, and had excellent hot rolls and butter every morning, but we did not think of tasting them, or any thing else, until we had asked the Divine blissing; and being satisfied, we were equally regular in returning thanks --- this we performed by turns. I speak of this practise with an agreable reflection, as I look upon it one of the most rational of our Religious dutys; it is a delight to the mind continually to remember that every comfort flows from its Heavenly Father -- the Almighty and benevolent Creator; and it speaks a conscience void of offence, and a mind desirous of fulfilling the Devine pleasure, when with sincerety & confidence a blissing is asked from God ---- Gratitude and thankfulness are also marks of a good mind; but the only gratitude we can show toward God is love and obedience, and the best thankfulness a chearfull contentment. Sterne has made the family of a French peasent express their contentment in a dance after supper, but I should think it were more proper, and could be best expressed by works on such occasions. Contentment is surely a continued thankfulness as well as a continual feast, and happy is that man who finds and knows how to preserve a chearfull contentment. My baggage Chist arrived in a few days and my Landlord observing that it was a well made chist, but that they who made it had not known much of sea affairs, advised me to empty it and he would see it better secured; -- accordingly it was provided with Iron handles, and strengthned by two clasps on each corner --- this chist is now in the room with me --- is now the reservoir of my cloaths, and stands at the foot of my bed on my right hand side --- it has been my traveling companion for near these 20 years, excepting some particular seperations which shall be mentioned --- I now regard its old appearence with a kind of affection. Notwithstanding my hasty ride up to Glasgow, I was near three weeks there ere orders came for my going to Greenock where the ship lay, during this time I had an opp y: of corresponding with my friends in the Country with whom I had lately parted. I dined frequently with M r: Brown, and became something of a favourite with M rs: Brown; they went to the New Church where I accompanyed them one Sabbath -- this is one of highest finished buildings in the Kingdom, both within and without; its steeple is the only part which detracts from its elligance, being a demin- itive ill finished imatation of a Cupola. I saw several of those places which are thought worthy of visiting in Glasgow, among others, the High- -Church, a remarkably strong & large gothic structure, where two numerous congregations meet, the one above the other, the lower one under the arches which support the floor of the upper --- the Steeple, which is very high, and Commands a vew of the whole City and great part of the Country round, is supported by four of the longest pillers --- I think they are longer than those supporting the roof of West=minster Abby:-- the church within exhibited a curious composition of pillar work. I saw the College (in which there is an academy of painting) and college gardens; also the Glasshouse & Incle-manufactory. At length the day was appointed for my going to Greenock, and the night before I set out, M r: Brown introduced me into a Company who had met to drink the joey or farewell of John Hay, Jr. David Chambers who were to be my fellow passangers; on further recolection Chambers was not of the Compy: he had been unfortunate in some business he carried out in Private; he was employed by some Mercht s: in Glasgow to go out to Virginia with goods on their Acc t: was engaged for three years and had a tolerable good salary. John Hay had been in Virginia some years, and was now going out with a small cargo of goods a joint adventure twixt him and a residenter in Glasgow --- M r: Brown introduced me to M r: Hay and recommended me to his notice. The young men in Glasgow are rather more loose in their manners than those of other towns in Scotland, many of them have been in the West Indeas and North America, who bring home manners quite different from their early education which often prove contageous to their companions. I remember some wanton toasts to have been drank in the Comp y: I am now speaking of, some of which M r: Brown (next to whom I sat) would not join in --- he said they were gross and beastly, the author said they were feeling & sensible. Our meeting was appointed in the morning at a Tavern in the Gorbals, which in situation, is the same with respect to Glasgow as Southwark is to London --- here I first saw D: Chambers above ment d: -- several of J: Hays acquaintance having come to see him take horse, there was a bowl full of a mixture of Spirits Milk etc (called Old-mens-milk), drank in mutual good wishes; which being dis= cussed, required that the youngest should say grace, for which reason it became my duty --- I had now learned so much of complyance as to make it a very short one --- Lord bless us and our Victuals, Amen. It was praised as being very good. We dined and drank heartily, the old Woman promised we should have a wind and we returned. In this excurtion we were joined by a Ship Master who was to be a fellow passenger, he was an inhabitant in Greenock, and was going out to oversee the building of a ship for some of the Glasgow Mercht s:. The wind comming fair, one morning we received notice to prepare for embarking --- accordingly having cleared all scores and disposed every thing for our departure, our Captain called to take us to the boat. The ship lay about two miles distance from the harbour; the River or rather Frith opposite Greenock is some miles wide; it blew strong (what the seamen call a fresh-breeze) and the waves run high. It was the pilots boat, an open boat with only two oars; the pilot (an old man) with his attendent being the rowers. Several of us got wet by the waves beating on the sides of the boat and from the spray off the oars --- happily however, we got on board the ship without any material dammage. The vessle from the manner of her rigging was called a Snow --- the Snow, Elliot -- Cap t: John Ferry, belonging to John Glasford & Comp y:. Cap t: Ferry was a queit man, and more discreat than many of his proffesion. There was a deal of noice and hurry and seeming confusion in getting the Snow under Way, and I was fond of being upon Deck to observe the proceeding ---- when we had made a tack or two, and were in a fair way to pass a narrow turn in the Frith called the Clough, our pilot prepaird to quit the Snow, and his boat having been halled along-side he went into her ---- he seated himself and called to his attendent to come along, when the ship making a lee lurch (or giving a sudden bend to the leeward) under brisk way, compleatly soused his boat under water. Luckily he caught hold of a rope which hung over the ships quarter, and holding fast called aloud for assistance; our seamen were much employed about the sails of the Ship and did not come in a hurry ---- I looked at him over the side, he hung in the water, and when the ship diped to the leeward he was soused over head -- raising his countenance marked with dismay, he called out --- O! Will you let an old-man drown alongside? I also exclaimed that I feared he would be drowned ---- two or three seamen came to his assistance, and having secured him with ropes pulled him on the deck; the boat was fast to the ship by the rope called her painter, and was all this time draged under-water; she was hoisted up, the water entirely emptied, and let down again on her bottom. While the boat was righting the poor old pilot was lamenting himself --- he sat in the Cabin wringing his hands and bemoaning --- "whey should I come upon the water to suffer at this rate --- I can live very well on shore without endangering my life --- O! O! To be sixty years old and be drowned out of my own boat along side of a ship! --- what has come of my boat?" --- she is safe. "I wish I were at my own fire side, they should not soon get me upon the water again; O! O! I am sure I can live ashore --- I need not be drowned this way ---- I wish I was on shore". The poor man was comforted with what the ship affoarded, his boat provided with oars, one of which notwithstanding his situation he was obliged to manage. ---- We saw him get on Shore. The adventures of this day had given me no very pleasing opinion of the sea, which, added to the appearence of our own situation that did not promise to be of the most comfortable, threw a serious thoughtfulness over my mind. We had not sailed far, when the Wind began to be contrary, and it was found necessary, toward next morning, to come to Anchor in Fairly-road. I had sleeped little during the night, and waking before day I felt sick, got up, and went upon deck; Chambers followed me for the same reason; it was a clear starry morning and a smart breeze, the appearence and motion of the ship was what engaged our attention & conversation. Shortly after the ship was brought to anchor all we passengers went on shore along with Cap t: Ferrie. Fairly is a scattered Village on the frith side, about 18 miles from Greenock; the Inn was then kept by a Widow Woman, whos two daughters were of age; here we secured lodgings till the wind should again be in our favour ---- it did not favour us in the course of three weeks. Our time was cheifly spent in walking into the country and playing cards, in which last matter John Hay was our instructer. I learned Allfours, Picquet, Cribbage, and something of Whist. Some nights we played at forfits with the Girls; once, I was ordered to kneel to the eldest and beg a kiss, and that I must kiss her three times ---- I had no objection to the kisses, or to a proper meathod (as I thought) of asking for them, but I would not kneel --- no, not to any mortal. At this refusal severals of the Comp y: and the Girle whom I was to kiss, laughed heartily; she was a full-grown Woman, and when she saw that I would not kneel, she would kiss me she said without kneeling. Although I might now vew the matter of kneeling on such an occasion, as wholly indifferent, I then looked upon it as being an improper and disgracefull piece of behaviour; and I verily believe that no consideration would at that time have made me perform it. It was the oldest sister whom I kissed; the youngest was the most agreeable of the two. On a tolerably pleasent forenoon, John Hay and I being about to Walk, I proposed we should take Janny with us; he said I might ask --- I do not remember whither I had the girls consent, & that she reffered me to her mother, but I asked the Mother ---- will you let Janny take a walk with us? This was expressed in a fond young manner, and the mother heartily replyed, imitating the sound of my voice, ---- no, no, no, I wwill not. The answer and the manner of it somewhat offended me, and I retorted the mockery upon her by expressing in a grining manner --- yay, yay, yay --- and went out. The Old Woman was much offended at this, though I was not made sensible of it till sometime afterwards. Our passengers Cap t: had been up at Greenock, and the wind was changing somewhat favourable he returned, but we did not sail for some days the wind not answering. Fairly road is made a safe one by two Islands called Cumberas, the smallest of which is a barren Island about five miles in circumference; there are thousands of Rabbits on it, there is but one house, the owner of which makes a business of killing Rabbits whoes skins are Valuable, and keeps a Cow and some sheep. On the 22nd of February the wind being in our favour we went on board, and the Ship having got under way, we sailed leasurly along; as we passed the Cumbera, its inhabitant came in his boat, and brought about a dozen of skinned Rabbits; he had been a seaman, and expressed his fear that our wind would not yet answer --- he was treated with a bowle of Toddy and took his leave. The wind did not answer our going out the north-channel ‘twixt Ireland and Scotland, but it continued fair and moderate to carry us out of S t:George's Channel; the weather was good, and we had a pleasent sail along the coast of Ireland. It is the Custom with seamen (from this port) to look for three bottles of Rum from each passenger --- one when they show you what is called the passengers if you go the North Channel, and when you see Tushar rock going the South or S t: Georges channel -- the 2 d: at half way, and 3 d: on making the Wished for Land. The passengers are two devisions of a rock standing perpendicularly on the face of a precipice on the Western side of Kantire, fronting the Island of Isla --- to which they have been wanting to pass time immemorial. I was not acquainted with these dues expected by the seaman, and therefore was not well provided for them; the pocket money w c: my father had given me at parting, had by the unexpected delays been wasted and I had borrowed some triffle from M r: Hay; I was not therefore provided with what is generally a good succedaneum --- but in the present case, the Rum would have been more acceptable than its value. I had been told to provide myself with a little rum to which I might apply on any occasion without depending on the Cap t: who was our provider in every thing for pay t: of 10 Guineas --- 5 of which (according to the custom of that port) goes to the owner of the Ship, and the Ship Master may save as much as he can of the other 5 in the way of providing --- this passage is now 12 Guineas, 7 of which is allowed for provision. My jug containted but three or four quarts of Rum, and I paid what I saw was customery with chearfulness. On the fourth day we took our farewell of (or departure from) land --- from an Island on the Irish shore called Cape-clear. We had a fair wind, and it began to blow fresh, which soon produced some of those disagreable scenes occasioned by sea sickness; it was not severe on me, having only for 3 or 4 Mornings compelled me to clean my Stamach; was worst, he fixed himself by the stove and keep his position several days without moving farther than to bed. The ship was going at a fine rate, 7, 8 or 9 knots or Miles an houer; this wind continued for 8 or 10 days and drove us a full third of our passage, and the seamen and those who had been the passage before began to talk of the halfway house, and of our seing the Old-man Etc. The wind changed and kept against us for sometime. One night, the older passengers having sat up with the Captain at their bowle, the younger ones being in bed; their conversation was concerning matters on shoare, and as they were going to bed, the discourse turned to the Widow inkeeper at Fairly and her two daughters. Some one observed that I seemed to be the favourite in that house; the Cap s: passenger answered that I had lost it all ere I came away by my treatment of the Mother when she refused to let Janny walk with me; that she had told him the story how she was never answered in her life, and if he had been there he would have driven a tooth in my throat; I know not whither he thought me asleep, but I was not so, and immediately said, that was more than he dared have taken upon him to have done --- he said I would better hold my peace now; I replyed I would speak when I thought proper; in this manner the affair rested. I cannot but think the Widow was wrong in taking offence at a heasty disrespectfull answer from youth; but much more so to tell it sometime after, behind my back, with a colouring (perhaps) to my disadvantage. All the Ship Masters trading from Glasgow to America are acquainted in Fairly, they frequently run Rum & some other things on shore here, and the Widows was their principle haunt ---- it was neither honor nor justice that actuated our Cap s: passenger, but merely to favour the Widows resentment against one whose displeasure, he thought, could not injure him. When it was thought we had gone the half of our passage, prepairations were made to introduce us who had not been that way before, to the Old-man of the half-way house; this is a ridiculous invention calculated to make sport at the Ex- pence of passengers, and to gratify any peek or malicious resentment against any individual. Because of its absurdity and the opportunity it gives for illwill and resentment to fulfill their malicious purposes, I am glad it is a custom from only one port in Great-Britain, but I am sorry that it should be the practise of the Cheif trading port in North-Britain. The manner is to wrap one sea-man all over with tarpalens and hemp-rugs, and his cheeks and face to be besmeard with tar; he is provided with a slip of wood, thin'd to an edge & notches; a large tub is filled with saltwater, and placed on the deck near to the boats, with a board over it --- while these things are preparing those who are to be made acquainted with this half-way-man are shut below in the Cabin; things being in readyness they are firmly blindfolded and brought to deck. Chambers, , and myself were the only three to go through this vile half-way custom. For reasons, which, to the dishonor of human nature, are too obvious, I, it seems, had been destined to suffer the full extent of what the barbarous practise of the day would allow --- I was therefore last of being taken to deck: When I was brought there, the seaman walking and knocking with his stick, asked from whence I came and such like questions, and being told my name, immediately hugged me strong in his arms, and by way of salutation rubbed his tarry cheeks over my face, then telling me that I must be shaved he rubbed more tar on me with his hands, in doing which he took care to shove his fingers frequently amongest my hair, which was then long and thick, --- he then rubbed violently on my chin with his notched rasor so as to make me cry out; I was then told I must be washed, and being seated on the board across the tub of water, it was drawn from under me, and down I fell double in the water --- some seamen placed in the boats which overlooked the tub, being provided with buckets full of water, immediately poured them over my head. When those elegant minds who could enjoy such a scene had their desires satisfied, I was relieved from the water, and my eyes unbound. I suffered in silence, and made it my business to clean myself and get dry cloaths as quick as possible. I believed I had only suffered in common, and that therefore custom might justify my treatment; I did not then know a meathod for redress, nor was I capable of traceing the springs of my treatment with the same truth which I believe I now do, else I would not have suffered such shamefull usage without bringing its perpetrators to account. I was not long of being tolerably clean, excepting my hair, the cleaning & combing of which was the employment of some days. Those baptised Barbarians would not have dared to devert themselves with, or gratify their private resentment on me at this rate, had my Relations lived near Glasgow ---- for they might have had it in their power by a proper representation to the owners of the Snow, to have got Cap t: Ferrie discharged from his command; or at least to have represented him in such a manner [for it was vile in him to suffer such a matter on board his Vessle, altho' I believe he was instigated thereto] as that no passenger would chuse in future to sail with him; but my Relations were entirely out of the way of their connections, and they had nothing either to hope or fear from them ---- therefore the malignity of their minds was under no restraint. We had several smart gales of wind during the passage, but one in particular (shortly after our half-way business) was exceedingly severe, and lasted upwards of 24 hours; --- it was about midnight, all we of the Cabin were in bed excepting our Cap s: passenger, who sat reading in the armseat; all the seamen also were in bed except two who keept watch on deck; when the Ship falling off one Wave sideways, the succeeding wave struck her upon the quarter, knocked in two middle Cabin windows, filled the cabin with about foot deep of water, and threw me with my bed cloaths in the middle of the floor. I lay on the side which the sea struck, those who lay on the opposite had their beds filled full of water; the chists and other things in the Cabin were thrown from their fastnings, and as I waked and found myself in the midest of them with the water rushing over me as the Ship moved, I heard the dreadfull noice of the raging ocean passing the open windows, with the cries of those in bed thinking they were drowning, my mind was struck with the terror of the scene & with an uncertain fear whither we were in eminent danger or not ---- from these apprehentions we were relived by our Cap s: passenger, who laughing at our cries and situation, was calling loudly for light; the light was brought, but it rather added than deminished from the terror of our situation by enabling our most assured sence to be witness of the tremendous scene around us. A hole was bored somewhere in the Cabin floor to let the water run off or through, the Dark-lights were brought and fitted in the Cabin windows, after which we seemed to be somewhat more secure --- the Cap t: thought fit we should all drink some spirits, and we endeavoured to compose ourselves in the best manner possible till morning. In a gale of wind or Storm at sea, a Ship is managed in the following manner; all the sails (except what is hereafter mentioned) are rolled up and bound very securely to the yards, which is called handing them, the tiller which manages the rudder (or Helm) is made fast in the middle of the ship, so that the rudder is in line with the keel of the ship; a small sail or part of a sail is spread somewhere towards the stern of the ship, which acts to hed in the same manner as the tail of a Weather-cock, by keeping her head to the wind ---- so up she mounts upon the swelling sea and down again as low, as sportive crows do in the midway air. The dark-lights are strong beams fitted nicely to the Cabin-windows, which defend against any accident of water striking there. In this situation while a Ship keeps her head well to the wind and waves she seems less in danger than when under sail in a stiff breeze. Some vessles ride the waves much more easily and securely than others. It is the custom with all artists to make a claim on you for drink money, if you have handle any of their instruments or any part of their work; and it is best to submit to this claim whcn you incur the penalty, especially on board of Ship; for in that situation you must in a manner be a companion for a time to those who make the demand, and they may show you some marks of their ill will if refused. In conformity to the mentioned custom, Seamen demand a bottle of Rum fro you should you attempt to mount the shrouds, which are the ladders of ropes that assend to the tops of the masts. I am not sure whither any of my fellow passengers had attempted to mount without demand being made on them, but I well remember that when on a fine day I attempted to mount the shrouds, I was followed by a young seaman carrieing small rops in his hand, who demanded a bottle of Rum from me or else he would ty me where I was. I had not seen or been told of such a custom, and therefore looked on it as an impertinent and severe demand, and determined not to comply; he proceeded to ty me, but I requested to be let go up as far as I could; I reached the main-top, and as I persisted to refuse making any promise of Rum, he bound me to the top of the mast using some scurrilus language, and let down part of my breeches ---- the same spirit and resentments in the officers of our Ship which dictated my usage at Halfway permited my present treatment. I stood about half an houer, when our Cap s: pass r: cryed out he would pay a bottle for me, and I was unbound. It has ever been my disposition to resist to the outmost what I thought unjust, and especially when that injustice was attempted to be forced upon me --- but notwithstanding how disagreable soever it may be to submit to injustice or what we may apprehend to be so, yet if the demand is sanctioned by any custom or supported by any Law or strengthned by the majority of any Company it is best to submit with a good grace. Experience had not then taught me this council, and still my spirit is so opposed to any ungenerous or unjust demand that I am apt to overlook every other consideration in resisting it. I came from the Mast in a sullen humour, and alth'o the Rum had been paid for me, I believe I did not give him who paid it any thanks; I thought I was under no obligation. I do not remember whither it was before or after this transaction, that our Cap s: passenger either showed an instance of his Tricky turn or of his unfriendly disposition to me; it was a fine day and smart breeze, we were on the quarter deck, and he proposed we should try who could walk steadyist on one plank; when I tryed he took an opp y: to trip me, by which I fell heastily on the deck: --- John Hay being about some necessary business had given me his watch to keep. I had it in my hand in my waistcoat pocket, and saving myself threw it violently on the deck; it received little other injury than braking of the glass, and I escaped unhurt; but we were both offended, and on my part with great justice, as the injury was aimed at me, and might have been of bad consequence. Some people are apt to do tricks simular to this without any ill will, but I was neither disposed or bred to such things, and was therefore offended at their being offered to me. The matters which I have related of this fellow passenger led me to think it was not friendship that induced him to pay the Rum for me, and as it was a matter which I would not condesend to ask from another or promise from myself, I never looked on myself as indebted for it. I do not remember anything farther that may serve either for instruction or example during our voyage; we got soundings and saw the land in fine weather with a fair wind and came happily to Anchor off Lewels-point in the mouth of James-River --- we gratifyed the Cabin-boy and seamen at parting, and went in the pilot-boat to Norfolk. Norfolk is situated on a navigable branch of James-River about 30 miles from Cape-Henry w c is at the entrance of the navigation, and the first Land which sailors see when comming on the Virginia coast --- the branch on which Norfolk stands is called Elizabeth-River, and opposite the Toown of Portsmouth, and on the Portsmouth side across a small branch of the River (called a Creek) lay Gosport, a place which wholly consisted of the buildings belonging to M r: Andrew Sprowel a Native of Scotland. I landed at Norfolk on the 11 th: April 1763 twixt three and four Oclock afternoon. I was directed to Jno: Crammonds lodgings; the dinner was just over, and I was refreshed at a side-table; there were many questions asked me, but nothing worth memory occurred. I went to the Store-house with Mr: Crammond, returned to supper, and slept in a Room with John Dalglish a lodger in the House and a Physician; we conversed on several indifferent matters, and he showed his kindness by telling me where spare bed-cloths lay if I should find myself cold Etc. I was pleased in the morning to vew a garden with several peach and other fruit treas in full blossom. Some few days I eat & sleept in this House, and rec d: a good deal of notice from other Lodgers and the Women of the family, whos names were Wake; whither or not M r: Crammond thought proper on this account to show my dependance and servitude I know not, but he now and then thought fit to stile me, Boy, an appelation I highly disliked, and he soon read my displeasure from my behavior on these occasions, and thought fit to call me by my own name. Parents who expect their children to be treated with kindness at a distance from all friends & Relations, ought to be well acquainted with the disposition of those under whos Authority they are put, else their sons may meet with ignominy and hardship, where instruction, kindness & protection were expected. It is a common thing with Mechanicks and others to engage or Indent their time with the Owners or Masters of Ships with power of assigning their Service over to whosoever shall purchase the Indenture, this they do to defray the expence of passage Etc --- therefore in that Country the name of Indented Servent be his Station what it will, conveys with it something disgracefull. All engagements of time, when Young Men enter as Clerks to serve an Employer in that Country are made assignable, by which means the principle has it in his power to place the Youth in any service he may think fit --- Parents should take care to limet this power. It is Customery in that Country for Merchants & their Clerks (or Agents) to eat at the same Table, but J: Crammond thought it too much to pay the same board wages for me as he did for himself, and I was boarded in another house. Some of my Acqts: told me I should remonstrate against it, as it was not customery, but as I found the House agreable where I was, I did not think fit to begin any dispute. I do not recolect the name of the People where I boarded, as for Lodging, the practise is for the Clerk (called Storekeeper in that Country) to sleep in the Store for fear of Robbery by Negroes or Others. Sometime after, I went to another house to board, their names were Millard, I was I believe a 12 Months here, and this year was the most agreable one I had in Virginia. I was a good dancer, and it was the Custom to collect about Twelve of each sex of the Young Neighbours in their parents houses & have a dance & Supper, free from care, no design or guile possesing the mind, the young-heart disposed to be merry, humanily ripening or just ripned in every Countinance, the Old parents & friends looking on, refreshments of the best kind at hand, the Music alert & the dance on foot --- the joyous houers flew on. Let youth embrace these evenings, they are his nearist teast of happiness here below. 

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